Shedding light on the book of regional organizations
For Soufan Akef.
Regional organizations: definition, divisions and their relations with international organizations
A regional organization is a body established by a group of countries for the purpose of cooperation and coordination with each other in one or more areas, and to achieve common goals for member states, regardless of the number and diversity of organizations, there are main objectives. Common to all organizations that are limited to nearly four axes:
Solidarity between states, cooperation and coordination in the economic and social fields, and discussion of problems of stability and national liberation.
Regional organizations can be divided in terms of competencies into public organizations that carry out multiple and different activities, such as economic, political, cultural and social activities, such as the Organization of African Unity, the League of Arab States, the European Union, the Organization of American States, the ASEAN Organization in the Asian Continent and others, and organizations that have specialization in A specific activity, such as the Arab Labor Organization, and organizations specialized in the economic field, such as the Arab Monetary Fund, and others.
Perhaps it is appropriate that we try to shed light on the relations between regional organizations, international organizations and membership of regional organizations.
A- The relationship between regional organizations and international organizations.
It should be noted that those who drafted the United Nations Charter realized the importance of regional ties between some member states. Therefore, in the context of the peaceful settlement of disputes, the Charter referred some of its provisions to the organizational relationship between the international organization and regional organizations. Therefore, Article 52 of the Charter states:
1- Nothing in this charter precludes the establishment of regional organizations or agencies dealing with issues related to the maintenance of international peace and security, where regional action is appropriate, as long as these regional organizations or agencies and their activities are consistent with the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
2- Members of the United Nations belonging to these organizations or whoever consists of them shall work to settle domestic disputes peacefully, through regional organizations or regional agencies, before they are presented to the Security Council.
3 – The Security Council should encourage the spread of a peaceful solution to local disputes through these regional organizations or through these regional bodies upon the request of the states concerned for referral to the Security Council.
In light of these texts, international disputes can be resolved peacefully, within the framework of regional organizations such as: the League of Arab States, the African Union, the European Union, the Organization of American States, and the ASEAN Organization in the Asian continent.
The regional agglomeration has become one of the distinctive features of the contemporary international community, especially after the emergence of institutions and agencies expressing regional organizations that aim to achieve regional unity, and the interests of the members of these organizations. And it plays an effective role in settling disputes that arise between member states of the regional organization, given the depth of the ties that exist between these countries, which are included in the Charter of the League of Nations in Article (21) and what is confirmed by the United Nations Charter in Article (52). With regard to the general rules established by international law in relation to international organizations in general, if they relate to the establishment of the organization, its jurisdiction or branches, its relations with international organizations or the internal organization of these organizations.
B – membership of regional organizations and responsibility of members:
The process of selecting members of regional organizations is governed by the following rules:
1- Equitable distribution so that all countries are represented in the organization.
2- The ability of the member state to contribute to achieving the goals of the organization.
In UNESCO, for example, eminent personalities in various scientific disciplines, such as arts, education, science, sociology, and others are elected, and emphasis is placed on their intellectual capabilities to spread ideas and their regional influence.
3 The membership of the branches of organizations governs the representation of the governments of its member states, and they are chosen by their governments, with the exception of some specialized organizations whose members are chosen for their competence and personal qualities.
4- The responsibility of workers in regional organizations is governed by the nature of the tasks that each of them performs, and the effects of the behavior that the state’s representative performs in the organization goes to the government he was sent by, while the responsibility for the actions of international employees rests with the organization itself, so if the state’s representative cast his vote In the organization in the name of his country, the latter was asked about him, while the voices of state representatives in the various branches of organizations result in a collective decision that returns him to the organization, in accordance with international rules, and international charters specify, either explicitly or implicitly, the legal status of their employees, while functional laws define the legal system for state representatives .
In terms of diplomatic immunity, representatives of states in regional organizations do not enjoy immunities. As for international employees, they enjoy absolute immunity, regardless of their nationalities, given that international employees work for the common collective interest, and their activity extends to include the interests of member states. Member states, rather they belong to the regional organization alone, which leads to the independence of the international employee in front of the state of whose nationality he enjoys in front of other countries, and the appointment of the international employee is not required to obtain the approval of his country, although the member states are pressuring regional organizations to prevent the appointment of their nationals without obtaining Her approval.
Dr . Ahmed al-Najjar